The beautiful biology of a butterfly

Ever wondered how a wiggly little caterpillar blossoms into a colorful fluttering butterfly? Butterflies normally go through complete metamorphosis and the entire lifecycle is divided into four distinct stages. A butterfly has to go through each of these four stages called the egg, larva, pupa and adult, where each lifecycle phase has a particular purpose or goal. Based on the species of the butterfly, the metamorphosis may span anywhere from 30 days to an entire year!


The initial form of a butterfly is a tiny spherical or cylindrical egg lying on the surface of a leaf. If you peer closer, you’ll notice a small caterpillar or a tiny larva growing inside it. The shape of the egg normally depends on the specific type of butterfly that laid it and can range from basic oval to round and even ribbed figures. Most of these eggs can be found on the leaves of outdoor plants and garden plantation.


Don’t expect a butterfly to pop out right away as soon as the egg hatches. In the second stage, the egg transforms into a butterfly larva known as the caterpillar. The caterpillar is the star of this stage, and its role is to eat the leaf it was born onto. The type of leaf consumed depends on the type of caterpillar. The tiny, stubby thing cannot move onto to a new plant and so has to hatch on the kind of leaf it likes to eat. This is the basic goal of the larva stage, which prepares the caterpillar for the next phase in the metamorphosis.


The pupa or chrysalis phase is the core transformational stage for the lifecycle of a butterfly. Once the caterpillar has grown into the required size, the tissues are broken down and the limbs and organs are shaped into a pupa, also referred to as a chrysalis. If you look at the outer part of the pupa, you’ll feel as if the caterpillar is just taking a rest but it is in fact growing and transforming inside the chrysalis. Within the pupa, the caterpillar undergoes remarkable physical and structural changes to develop the exquisite parts of a butterfly. By the time the pupa is complete, the transformed caterpillar is all ready for the fourth and final stage of the life cycle.


This stage features the emergence of the adult butterfly from the pupa once the caterpillar has undergone full transformation and all necessary changes to its form are complete. As soon as the butterfly comes out of the chrysalis, you’ll notice its wings are a bit soft and aligned towards its body. The folded wings with a gentle feel to them are so because the butterfly has to fit all the body parts inside the pupa while the metamorphosis is in process. As soon as the butterfly has rested after moving out of the chrysalis, it goes to work by pumping blood into the new wings which need to flap so it can fly. It takes the butterfly 3 to 4 hours to develop flying expertise after which it is ready to reproduce and lay some eggs.

5 Secrets For Making Learning Easy

Does absorbing a new topic take more time than it should? You might want to switch up your learning skills. Getting an idea of your learning style and the way you learn best will largely assist you in developing your comprehension, reasoning and assimilating abilities. Building on your learning skills doesn’t have to feel like a climb up Mount Everest . Take a look at these secrets below to step up your game.

Identify Your
Learning Style

Finding out about your learning style is the place to start if want to learn a new skill promptly or score top grades in your class. While some learn better through a visual mode such as reading, others may feel comfortable grasping new concepts through listening (auditory learning) or physical activities (kinesthetic learning). Identify your specific learning style and embed the Multi-pass approach within it to customize your own learning technique so you can work smarter, not harder. For example, if you’re an audio learner, then make use of audio CDs to acquire new knowledge during a traffic jam to make your time more productive. If you prefer music playing in the background while you’re studying, then put on your favorite tune and have fun learning.


The multi-pass approach relates to tackling a new concept, theory or material instantaneously. The sooner you get it out of the way, the better your subconscious mind will be able to process the next phase where the comprehension and assimilation of the material really begins. Fuse this approach with your preferred learning style and you’ll definitely notice the effects the next time you glance at the same material.

Transform Your Learning Paradigm

While analyzing a piece of information or looking at some material, change your learning paradigm to bring about a shift in the role or viewpoint. For example, you could look at a school assignment from the point of view of a teacher or analyze the outcome of a proposed solution at work from the perspective of the client. This will help you keep the final outcome in mind so you can sift through the information easily.

Know Intelligence Is
Dispersed Throughout the Body

Every part of your body has a mind of its own. Ensure your brain and body are in harmony with each other when studying and look out for any deviating signals your body might be giving you to signify a disconnect between what your mind is learning and what your body wants. It’s your mind’s way of telling you there are other, more significant needs you should pay attention to.

Go Take That Brain-Breather

You should schedule short breaks within an extended period of study, for example a 5-minute getaway after every 45 minutes and 15-minute break every 2 hours. According to research, the human brain retains most of the first and last components of the study material so take short breaks during regular intervals to expand these components. It’s also a great way to give your brain a breather so you can resume with a fresh, sharper mind to be more productive.

5 Mind Bending Discoveries in physics

The Universe. A vast, mysterious system, running on energy, forces, laws and theories which intrigue and evade us. A few brave souls have tried and succeeded in unlocking some of the mysteries of the cosmos , leading to discoveries like Planck’s Constant, the Theory of Special Relativity, the Natural Unit of Light and Gravitational Laws. These findings help us understand our world a little bit better. Here are 5 mind blowing discoveries in physics that changed how we see the phenomena around us.

Theory Of Special Reality

The Theory of Special Relativity was established by Albert Einstein, who surmised time would stop if you move at the speed of light. Technically, the speed of light moves at a constant speed of 3 x 10^8 meters/second. This theory is based on the concept of time expansion, so the faster you move, the slower time passes with regards to your surroundings. This means the clock won’t tick if you move at the speed of light as the time would slow down so much that it would eventually come to a stop. Einstein’s work on special relativity led to the theory of general relativity in 1915 after much mulling over the effects of introducing acceleration to the Theory of Special Relativity.

The Quantum Foam

The general perception of empty space is of an emptiness, with nothing occupying the spatial points in it. Thanks to John Wheeler, we know this is not how space is composed. There are real virtual particles that exist temporarily, moving in and popping out of the realm. They have been tested and proven by expert physicists. This phenomenon is called the Quantum Foam and scientists termed it so because the virtual molecules resemble the shifting bubbles similar to ones usually seen in fizzy drinks. Although they are real, they only exist for a short time, a fraction of a second, before they quickly disappear without affecting the inherent laws of physics.

All Matter is Energy

Another striking discovery is Einstein’s mass and energy equivalence (E=mc2), which states that although these two physical quantities may be contrasting, they are in fact related. According to the theory, the energy stored in any specific amount of mass or object can be calculated by using the conversion factor of c2, where c is a constant for the speed of light. This reinforces that the energy of an object is very large even if its mass is very little.

object fall at
the same speed

No, heavy objects do not fall faster than lightweight ones! The Law of Gravitational Force prevails. A ball used for bowling does fall quicker than a bird’s feather, but this has no concern with gravity at all. The resistance from the earth’s atmosphere is responsible for this. The initial acceleration for the feather is the same as for the bowling ball. However, the feather’s surface area to mass ratio is greater, reducing its top speed and causing it to fall at a slower rate. This discovery by Galileo 400 years ago paved the way for further exploration and discoveries, especially in modern physics.

wave particle duality

The Wave Particle Duality Theory suggests both light and electrons can act as particles and waves as well. Generally, particles such as electrons and light waves cannot be alike since particles are solid state of matter while waves are comprised of energy beams. However, scientists have proven light can be both a wave and a particle, as can electrons. The small wavelengths of an electron are useful aids for inspecting objects smaller in size. Similarly, neutrons with wavelengths measuring 0.1nm, the typical atomic spacing in a solid material, provide useful insights into the structure of solids.